Treaty Of Alliance And Defense Between Bulgaria And Greece
[1]

Signed at Sofia, May 16, 1912

Considering that the two kingdoms firmly desire to keep peace in the Balkan Peninsula and that they can, by means of an effective treaty of alliance and defense, better respond to this need;

Considering, with the same object in mind, that the peaceful existence of different nationalities side by side in Turkey, on the basis of a real and bona fide political equality, and respect for the rights proceeding from treaties or otherwise granted to the Christian nationalities of the Empire constitute the conditions necessary for the stability of the state of affairs in the Orient;

Considering, finally, that the co-operation of the two kingdoms, in the manner indicated, is of a kind, in the very interest of their good relations with the Ottoman Empire, to facilitate and strengthen good understanding between Greek and Bulgar in Turkey;

The Government of His Majesty the King of the Bulgarians, and the Government of His Majesty the King of the Hellenes promise not to give this agreement, which is purely one of defense, an aggressive tendency in any way whatsoever, and having resolved to conclude an alliance of peace and of reciprocal protection in the terms here below indicated, have appointed as their plenipotentiaries [names of plenipotentiaries],

Who, after having exchanged their full powers, have agreed upon the following:

ARTICLE 1

If, contrary to the sincere desire of the high contracting parties and in spite of the attitude of their governments in avoiding all acts of aggression and all provocation toward the Ottoman Empire, either of the two states should be attacked by Turkey, either in its territory, or by a systematic infringement of the rights proceeding from treaties or from the fundamental principles of the law of nations, the two high contracting parties are bound to aid each other reciprocally with their entire armed forces, and consequently not to make peace except conjointly and in concert.

ARTICLE 2

The two high contracting parties mutually promise, on the one hand, to use their moral influence with their nationals in Turkey to contribute sincerely to the peaceful co-existence of the elements forming the population of the Empire, and, on the other hand, to give each other reciprocal aid and to act in concert, in taking any step with the Ottoman Government or with the great Powers, with a view of obtaining or insuring the enjoyment of rights proceeding from treaties or otherwise granted to Greek and Bulgarian nationals, the application of political equality, and constitutional guarantees.

ARTICLE 3

The present treaty shall remain in force for three years from the date on which it is signed and shall be tacitly renewed for one year, except in case of denunciation. Its denunciation must be made known at least six months before the expiration of the third year from the date on which it is signed.

ARTICLE 4

The present treaty shall be kept secret. It may not be communicated to a third Power, either in whole or in part, nor may it be divulged, in whole or in part, except with the consent of the two high contracting parties.

The present treaty shall be ratified as soon as possible. The ratifications shall be exchanged at Sofia (or at Athens).

In faith whereof, the respective plenipotentiaries have signed the present treaty and have thereto affixed their seals.

Done, in duplicate, at Sofia, on May 16, 1912.

I. E. GUECHOFF.

D. PANAS.

DECLARATION

Article 1 does not apply in case of war between Greece and Turkey as a result of the admission of Cretan deputies to the Greek Parliament against the will of the Ottoman Government. In such case, Bulgaria is bound only to observe friendly neutrality toward Greece; and, as the settlement of the crisis in the affairs of the Orient, resulting from the events of 1908 (likewise as to the Cretan question), is a matter of general interest and of a kind, without disturbing the equilibrium in the Balkan Peninsula, to strengthen the international situation there in the interest of peace, Bulgaria (independently of the engagements assumed by the present treaty) promises not to hinder in any way any action which may be taken by Greece aiming to settle this question.

I. E. GUECHOFF.

D. PANAS.

Military Convention Between Bulgaria And Greece [1]

Signed at Sofia, September 22, 1912

His Majesty the King of the Bulgarians and His Majesty the King of the Hellenes, desiring to complete with a military convention the treaty of alliance and defense, concluded at Sofia on May 16,1912, between the Kingdom of Bulgaria and the Kingdom of Greece, have, for this purpose, appointed as their plenipotentiaries:

His Majesty the King of the Bulgarians: His Excellency Iv. E. Guechoff, etc., etc.;

His Majesty the King of the Hellenes: His Excellency D. Panas, etc., etc.,

Who, after having communicated to one another their full powers, found in good and due form, have agreed upon the following:

ARTICLE 1

In case Greece, conformably to the obligations proceeding from the treaty of alliance and defense concluded at Sofia on May 17, 1912, between Bulgaria and Greece, should take military steps against Turkey in a Bulgaro-Turkish war; or in case Bulgaria should take such steps against Turkey in a Turko-Greek war, the two states, the Bulgarian and the Greek, engage to aid each other mutually, Greece with an effective force of at least one hundred and twenty thousand men, and Bulgaria with an effective force of at least three hundred thousand men. These forces must be equally well fitted to take the field upon the frontier and to take part in military operations beyond the boundaries of the national territory.

The above-mentioned troops must be concentrated on the frontier and in a position to cross it within twenty days at latest from the date of mobilization or of the notice given by one of the contracting parties that a casus faederis has occurred.

ARTICLE 2

In case Greece should be attacked by Turkey, Bulgaria engages to declare war on the latter Power and to take the field against it with all its forces, fixed by the terms of the preceding article at a minimum of three hundred thousand men, conforming its military operations to the plans of the Bulgarian General Staff.

In case Bulgaria should be attacked by Turkey, Greece engages to declare war on the latter power and to take the field against it with all its forces, fixed by the terms of the preceding article at a minimum of one hundred and twenty thousand men, conforming its military operations to the plans of the Greek General Staff. The principal object of the Hellenic fleet, however, should be to become mistress of the Aegean Sea and to cut off communication thereon between Asia Minor and Turkey in Europe.

In the cases provided for by the two preceding paragraphs, Bulgaria engages to take the offensive with a considerable portion of its army against the Turkish forces concentrated in the region of the vilayets of Kossovo, Monastir and Salonica. If Servia, by virtue of its agreements with Bulgaria, takes part in the war, Bulgaria may dispose of its entire military forces in Thrace, but in such case it engages, with respect to Greece, by the present instrument that effective Servian military forces of at least one hundred and twenty thousand fighting men shall take the offensive against the Turkish forces concentrated in the region of the three vilayets above-mentioned.

ARTICLE 3

If Bulgaria and Greece, by the terms of a prior agreement, declare war on Turkey, they are both bound, unless otherwise provided by special agreement, to take the field with the effective forces specified in Article 1 of the present convention.

The provisions of the last two paragraphs of Article 2 apply in this case also.

ARTICLE 4

In case either of the contracting governments should declare war on a state other than Turkey, without a previous understanding and without the consent of the other government, the latter is released from its obligations, as specified in Article 1, but nevertheless remains bound to observe, as long as the war lasts, friendly neutrality with regard to its ally.

ARTICLE 5

In case of a joint war, neither of the allied states may conclude an armistice of longer duration than twenty-four hours, without a previous understanding and without the consent of the other allied state.

An understanding in writing between the two contracting parties, shall be necessary also before either of them may enter into negotiations with a view to peace or conclude a treaty of peace.

ARTICLE 6

In case Greece, after Bulgaria and Greece have mobilized their armed forces or have taken the field, should, as a result of the wishes of the inhabitants of the island, find itself forced to settle the Cretan question and should be attacked on that account by Turkey, Bulgaria engages to come to its aid, conformable to Article 1 of the present convention.

ARTICLE 7

The chiefs of the general staffs of the Bulgarian and Greek armies must inform each other in good time as to their plans of operation in case of war. They must, moreover, make known every year such modifications as are made in these plans as a result of changed conditions.

ARTICLE 8

The present convention shall become binding upon the two contracting parties immediately upon being signed. It shall remain in force as long as the treaty of alliance and defense of May 16, 1912, in which it is incorporated as an integral part.

Done, in duplicate, at Sofia, on September 22, 1912.

I. E. GUECHOFF.

GENERAL FITCHEFF.

D. PANAS.

J. P. METAXAS, Captain.

[1] Translated from Le Memorial Diplomatique, November 30, 1913, p. 617.

Source: Amercian Journal of International Law: Vol. 8, No. 1, Supplement: Official Documents. (Jan., 1914).

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