The Treaty Of Peace Between
Turkey And Greece 
Signed at Athens, November 11, 1913
His Majesty the Emperor of the Ottomans, and His Majesty
the King of the Greeks, animated by the common desire
to strengthen the bonds of peace and friendship happily
reestablished between them, and to facilitate the resumption
of normal relations between the two countries, have
decided to conclude a convention for this purpose, and
have named as their plenipotentiaries, to wit:
His Majesty the Emperor of the Ottomans: His Excellency
Ghalib Kemal bey;
His Majesty the King of the Greeks: His Excellency
M. D. Panas, Minister of Foreign Affairs;
Who, after having communicated to each other their
full powers, which were found to be in good and proper
form, have agreed upon the following:
As soon as the present convention shall have been signed,
the diplomatic relations between Turkey and Greece shall
be resumed, and the respective consulates may be restored
and perform their duties in the two countries.
The Imperial Ottoman Government may establish consulates
in those portions of the ceded territories where agents
of foreign Powers are already to be found, as well as
in all places where the Royal Government of Greece sees
no objection to their admission.
The treaties, conventions and acts concluded or in
force between the two countries at the time of the breaking
off of diplomatic relations, shall be restored in full
force upon the signature of the present convention,
and the two governments, as well as their respective
subjects, shall be placed in the same situation as regards
one another, as they were before the hostilities.
PROTOCOL NO. 3, annexed to the present convention,
shall be applicable in all the territories of Greece.
The two high contracting parties accord full and complete
amnesty to all persons involved in the political occurrences
prior to the present treaty.
Consequently, no individual shall be pursued, disturbed,
or molested in person or property or in the exercise
of his rights, because of acts relating in any manner
whatever to the war, and all judicial sentences and
administrative measures based upon facts of that nature
shall be ipso facto annulled.
Persons domiciled in those territories of the Ottoman
Empire which pass under the dominion of Greece shall
become Greek subjects.
They shall have the right to choose the Ottoman nationality,
by making a declaration to the appropriate Greek authorities
within a period of three years from this date, the declaration
to be followed by registration at the Imperial Ottoman
consulates. This declaration shall be sent abroad to
the offices of Greek consulates and registered by Ottoman
consulates. However, the exercise of this option is
subject to the requirement that the persons in question
shall transfer their domicile to some place outside
Those who, during this period, shall have emigrated
to the Ottoman Empire or to foreign countries or shall
have established their domicile in such places, shall
remain Ottomans. They shall enjoy immunity from export
duties on their movable property.
The exercise of the option shall be personal.
During the same period of three years, the Musselmans
shall not be required to render military service, and
shall pay no military tax.
So far as the minor children are concerned, the period
during which the option may be exercised by them shall
begin to run from the date when they reach their majority.
Rights acquired up to the time of the occupation of
the ceded territories, as well as judicial decisions
and official deeds given by competent Ottoman authorities,
shall be respected and inviolate until legally disproved.
This article does not in any way prejudice the decisions
which may be rendered by the Financial Commission on
Balkan Affairs, sitting at Paris.
Inhabitants of the ceded territories who, in conformity
with the provisions of Article 4 of the present convention,
and retaining the Ottoman nationality, may have emigrated
to the Ottoman Empire or to foreign countries, or may
have established their domicile in these places, shall
continue to hold their real property situated in the
ceded territories, either renting it or administering
it through third parties.
Property rights in urban and rural real property held
by individuals by virtue of deeds issued by the Ottoman
state, or indeed by virtue of the Ottoman law in the
localities ceded to Greece, and before the occupation,
shall be recognized by the Royal Greek Government.
The same shall be true of property rights in the said
real property standing in the name of corporations or
held by them by virtue of Ottoman laws prior to the
No one shall be deprived of his property, either in
whole or in part, directly or indirectly, except for
a duly stated public purpose, and after the payment
of a proper indemnity.
The private property of his Imperial Majesty the Sultan
as well as that of the members of the Imperial Dynasty
shall be maintained and respected. His Imperial Majesty
and the members of the Imperial Dynasty shall be able
to sell or rent it through their agents.
All differences or disputes which may arise in the
interpretation or application of the present article,
shall be settled by an arbitration at The Hague, by
virtue of a compromis to be concluded.
Prisoners of war as well as all other persons arrested
by virtue of military measures or as a matter of public
order, shall be exchanged within the period of one month
after the conclusion of the present treaty, or sooner
This exchange shall take place under the direction
of special commissioners named by each party.
The mutual claims of the high contracting parties relative
to prisoners of war shall be submitted to an arbitration
at The Hague under a compromis to be concluded.
However, the salary of the officers paid by the Royal
Government of Greece shall be reimbursed by the state
to which they belong.
Immediately upon the signature of the present convention,
the Imperial Ottoman Government shall release all the
ships and boats flying the Greek flag which were seized
before the declaration of war and are held by that government.
Claims for damages and losses by interested persons,
because of the embargo or seizure of the Greek vessels
and their cargoes, shall, in accordance with a compromis
to be entered into by common agreement, be submitted
to an arbitral tribunal composed of four arbitrators
named by each party, and three other arbitrators to
be chosen from the subjects of maritime nations by the
two parties, or, in case of disagreement, by the Swiss
The two governments agree, under a compromis
to be concluded in the future, to submit to an arbitral
tribunal at The Hague the settlement of the dispute
which has arisen concerning the interpretation of the
protocol of surrender of Saloniki, dated October 26,
1912, and the protocol annexed thereto, regarding the
arms of Ottoman soldiers of the garrison of that city,
which the Imperial Ottoman Government claims should
The life, property, honor, religion, and customs of
those inhabitants of the territories ceded to Greece
who shall remain under the Greek dominion shall be scrupulously
They shall enjoy in full the same civil and political
rights as native Greek subjects. The free and public
practice of their religion shall be assured to Mussulmans.
The name of his Imperial Majesty the Sultan, as caliph,
shall continue to be pronounced in the public prayers
of the Mussulmans.
Neither the autonomy nor hierarchical organization
of the existing Mussulman communities, nor of those
which may be formed, nor the control of the funds and
real property which belongs to them shall be interfered
Neither shall any interference be made in the relations
of the individual Mussulmans or Mussulman communities
with their spiritual chiefs, who shall be subject to
the Cheik-ul-Islamat at Constantinople, who shall invest
the chief mufti [Webster says: "An official expounder
of Mohammedan law."].
The muftis, each within his own community, shall be
elected by Mussulman electors.
The chief mufti is named by His Majesty the King of
the Greeks from three candidates elected and presented
by an electoral assembly composed of all the muftis
The Government of Greece shall notify the election
of the chief mufti through the Royal legation of Greece
at Constantinople, to the Cheik-ul- Islamat who shall
forward to him a menchour and the murassale
authorizing him to exercise his functions and grant
to the other muftis of Greece the right to exercise
jurisdiction and to confer fetvas.
The muftis, in addition to their authority over purely
religious affairs and their supervision of the administration
of vakouf property, shall exercise jurisdiction between
Mussulmans in matters of marriage, divorce, alimony
(nefaca), guardianship, trusteeship, emancipation
of minors, wills of Ottomans, and succession to the
office of Mutevelli (tevliet).
The judgments rendered by the muftis shall be executed
by the proper Greek authorities.
As to matters of inheritance, the interested Mussulman
parties may, after agreeing thereto, resort to the mufti
as an arbitrator. All methods of appeal practiced before
the courts of the country shall be applicable to the
arbitral decision thus rendered unless there is a clause
expressly providing to the contrary.
The vakoufs Idjarie-Vahide, Idjaretein, Mouhatas, whether
they be Mazbouta, Mulhaka, or Mustesna, in the ceded
territories, as they were established by the Ottoman
laws at the time of the military occupation, shall be
They are governed by the Mussulman communities in the
ceded territories, which shall respect the rights of
Mutevelli and Galledars.
All of the vakouf real property, urban and rural, Mazbouta
or Moulhaka, situated in the territories ceded to Greece
and of which the revenues belong to religious and charitable
institutions located in Turkey, shall also be managed
by the aforesaid Mussulman communities until they are
sold by the ministry of the Evkaf.
It is well understood that the rights of Galledars
over the vakoufs aforesaid, shall be respected by the
The control of the vakoufs shall not be modified without
previous and just compensation.
If as a result of the abolition of the vakouf tithes
certain Tekkes, mosques, Medresses, schools, hospitals
and other religious institutions of a charitable character
located in the territories ceded to Greecc do not have
sufficient revenues in the future to maintain themselves,
the Royal Government of Greece shall grant to them the
necessary subsidies for this purpose.
All controversies as to the interpretation or application
of the provisions of the present article shall be decided
by arbitration at The Hague.
The high contracting parties agree to issue orders
to their provincial authorities to respect the cemeteries
and particularly the tombs of soldiers who fell upon
the field of honor.
The authorities shall not prevent relatives and friends
from removing the bones of victims'buried in foreign
The Royal Government of Greece having been subrogated
to the rights, duties and obligations of the Imperial
Ottoman Government as regards the Saloniki-Monastir
railroad companies, the Oriental railroads and the railroad
from the Saloniki-Dedeagatch junction, over such portions
of these roads as fall within the territories ceded
to Greece, all questions relating thereto shall be referred
to the Financial Commission on Balkan Affairs sitting
The two high contracting parties agree to uphold, so
far as the same concern them, the provisions of the
Treaty of London, May 20, 1913, including the provisions
of Article 5 of the said treaty.
The present treaty shall become effective immediately
upon its signature.
Ratifications shall be exchanged within two weeks from
His Excellency Ghalib Kemal bey to His Excellency
M. D. Panas
Athens, November 1/14, 1913.
I beg you to be so kind as to inform me whether the
"Union and Progress" is comprised within the designation
"corporations " mentioned in Article 6 of the convention
concluded on this day, and consequently, whether the
rights of this association in real property which it
holds in Saloniki will also be recognized and respected.
His Excellency M. D. Panas to His Excellency Ghalib
Athens, November 1/14, 1913.
In response to the letter of your Excellency dated
November 1/14, 1913, I have the honor to inform you
that the "Union and Progress" is comprehended within
the designation of "corporations" mentioned in Article
6 of the convention concluded on this day, and consequently
the rights of this association in real property which
it holds in Saloniki will also be recognized and respected.
PROTOCOL NO. 1
Natives of the ceded territories who are domiciled
outside the Ottoman Empire shall have a period of six
months within which to decide in favor of Greek nationality.
The declaration and its effects shall be the same as
those provided in Article 4.
PROTOCOL NO. 2
Since the Imperial Ottoman Government claims that the
private property of the state situated in the ceded
territories should still belong to it, and the Royal
Government of Greece does not accept this view and claims
that these properties should belong to it, the two contracting
parties have agreed to submit this question to an arbitral
tribunal at The Hague under a compromis to be
The number and extent of the possessions in question
are given in the list annexed to this protocol.
I. Province of Saloniki
A. Property which has passed to the state by inheritance
The number of these possessions is not yet known; but
they are of little importance, and approximately of
the value of 2,000 Turkish pounds, that is 2,000 Turkish
pounds. [This repetition of "2,000 Turkish pounds" would
seem to be an error. It would be natural for the last
phrase to be a statement of the value in the terms of
money of another country.]
B. Property which has passed to the state from the
1 farm, 46,210 deunums . . . 450 Turkish pounds
23 parcels of land, including the 288,290 meters located
in Saloniki upon which buildings have been erected,
128,024 deunums . . . 312,139 Turkish pounds
Parcel of land situated on the port of Saloniki, 410
meters . . . 30,000 Turkish pounds
II. Province of Janina
A. Property which has passed to the state by inheritance
916 parcels of land, 109,732 deunums . . . 15,175 Turkish
319 parcels with buildings, 48.48 deunums . . . 12,105
B. Property which has passed to the state from the
119 parcels of land, 2,672 deunums . . . 235 Turkish
193 farms, 550,380 deunums . . . 200,000 Turkish pounds
48 buildings (value not estimated)
III. 14 fishing-places in the prowince of Saloniki.
12,506 Turkish pounds
Tax concessions and enterprises which have passed to
the state from the civil list
I. Province of Saloniki
Mines, village of Lania, nahie of Vardar.
Mines, farms, Bochnak and Stanova, same nahie.
Gold mines, caza of Avrat-Hissar.
Oil tanks, Saloniki.
Drainage of the marshes of Sadova.
Land reclaimed from the sea, eastern coast of Saloniki.
Construction of docks and harbor in the gulf of Saloniki.
Steamship navigation in the gulfs of Cassandra and
II. Province of Janina
Soft coal mines, Lenitche; oil wells on the farm of
Lenitche, leased for forty years to Mr. Frederic Spadoll.
The zinc mine alone has been worked.
PROTOCOL NO. 3
1. No claim of any kind whatever shall be made by the
Imperial Ottoman Government for the ancient Christian
churches converted into mosques in times past, and given
up during the course of hostilities to their original
2. Every claim of the Imperial Ottoman Government that
the converted mosques were not originally churches shall
be examined by the Royal Government of Greece.
3. However, the revenues of vakouf property belonging
to the mosques mentioned in paragraph 1, if any, shall
be respected and remitted to the Mussulman communities
in the newly annexed territories, in order that they
may be freely used by them for the same purposes for
which they were originally created.
4. The Royal Government of Greece shall, at its own
expense, have a mosque constructed in the capital and
four other mosques in the poor villages where need is
5. All disputes as to the interpretation or application
of the preceding provisions shall be decided by an arbitration
at The Hague under the provisions of a compromis
to be concluded in the future.
6. A special establishment shall also be created for
the formation of Naibs.
7. The chief mufti and the muftis, as well as the members
of their offices, shall have the same rights and duties
as other public officers of Greece.
8. The chief mufti shall ascertain whether the mufti
elected possesses all the qualities required by the
law of Cheri.
9. The muftis cannot be displaced except in accordance
with the provisions of Article 86 of the Constitution
of the Kingdom of Greece.
10. The Mussulman communities being also charged with
the administration and supervision of the vakoufs, the
chief mufti shall have as one of his principal powers,
that of requiring statements of account from them, and
of prescribing the method of book-keeping to be followed.
11. No vakouf property shall be taken by expropriation
except for a duly announced public purpose and after
the payment of a just indemnity.
12. The public cemeteries of the Mussulmans shall be
recognized as vakouf property.
13. The corporate character of the Mussulman communities
14. The heudjets and decisions rendered by the
muftis shall be examined by the chief mufti, who shall
affirm them if he finds them in accordance with the
provisions of the law of Cheri.
When these heudjets and decisions relate to
religious questions other than the wills of Ottomans,
or concern purely material matters, the chief mufti,
as well as the parties, may have recourse to the Cheik-ul-
15. The private Mussulman schools, among others the
school of arts and crafts named Midhat-Pasha at Saloniki,
shall be recognized, and the revenue-producing property
controlled by them since their creation for the payment
of their expenses shall be respected.
The same treatment shall be accorded all private Mussulman
schools now existing or which may be created by individuals
or local committees of prominent Mussulmans.
The chief mufti, the muftis and instructors of public
instruction of Greece may inspect the schools. Instruction
shall be in the Turkish language and shall conform to
the official program, but the study of the Greek language
 Translated from
the French text published in the issue of December 1,
1913, of "Questions Diplomatiques et Coloniales," by
W. Clayton Carpenter, Washington, D.C.
Source: Amercian Journal of International Law: Vol.
8, No. 1, Supplement: Official Documents. (Jan., 1914).
This reprint www.pollitecon.com, March 2008