Treaty Of Friendship And Alliance Between The Kingdom Of Bulgaria And The Kingdom Of Servia
[1]

Signed at Sofia, February 29, 1912

His Majesty, Ferdinand the First, King of the Bulgars, and His Majesty Peter the First, King of Servia, thoroughly convinced of the common interests and the common destiny of their countries, and of the brother nations of Bulgarian and Servian peoples, and being resolved firmly to defend these interests with their united forces, and to endeavor to pursue them to a happy conclusion, have agreed upon the following:

ARTICLE 1

The Kingdom of Bulgaria and the Kingdom of Servia mutually and reciprocally guarantee the political independence and territorial integrity of each other, agreeing absolutely without exception of any kind, to support one another with their entire strength in any case where one of the two kingdoms may be attacked by one or more states.

ARTICLE 2

The two contracting parties agree also to aid one another with their entire strength in case any one of the great Powers shall attempt to annex or occupy, or to take military possession of, even temporarily, any part whatever of the territory of the Balkan peninsula now under Turkish domination, if one of the contracting parties believes this action to be injurious to its vital interests, and a casus belli.

ARTICLE 3

The two contracting parties agree not to conclude peace except jointly and after prior agreement.

ARTICLE 4

A military convention shall be concluded for the purpose of insuring the complete execution of the present treaty in the manner best suited to the accomplishment of the desired purpose. This convention shall provide also everything that is to be done by each party in case of war, as well as everything regarding military organization, demobilization and mobilization of troops, superiority of orders, which should be determined in time of peace with regard to the preparation for, and proper conduct of, war.

The military convention shall form an integral part of the present treaty. The work of drafting the same shall begin at the latest two weeks after the signature of the present treaty and must be concluded within the two months following.

ARTICLE 5

The present treaty and the military convention shall be in force from the date of their signature to the thirty-first of December, 1920, inclusive. They cannot be prolonged beyond this period without a supplementary agreement of the contracting parties, expressly authorized. However, in case the two parties should find themselves at war at the expiration of the treaty and the military convention, or in case they shall not have yet recovered from the situation resulting from the war, the treaty and convention shall be continued in force until the signing of the treaty of peace or the settlement of the conditions brought about by the war.

ARTICLE 6

The present treaty shall be drawn up in two identic copies, in both the Servian and Bulgarian languages. It shall be signed by the sovereigns and ministers of foreign affairs of the two countries. The military convention, also in two copies and drawn up in the Bulgarian and Servian languages, shall be signed by the sovereigns, the ministers of foreign affairs, and the special military plenipotentiaries.

ARTICLE 7

The present treaty and the military convention shall not be published or communicated to other countries except by previous agreement of the two contracting parties, and then it, shall be done jointly and at the same time.

Previous agreement shall also be necessary for the admission of a third state into the alliance.

Done at Sofia, February 29, 1912.

Secret Appendix To The Treaty Of Friendship And Alliance Between The Kingdom Of Bulgaria And The Kingdom Of Servia

Signed at Sofia, February 29, I912

ARTICLE 1

In case internal disorders arise in Turkey, of such a character as to endanger the national or state interests of the contracting parties, or of one of them, as for instance in case Turkey should find itself beset by internal or external difficulties which might involve the maintenance of the status quo in the Balkan peninsula, the first of the contracting parties to arrive at the conviction that military action should be taken on this account, shall make a statement, giving the reasons therefor, to the other party which shall be bound to enter immediately upon an exchange of views, and if the latter party does not agree with its ally, shall give to the ally an answer stating the reasons.

If an agreement is arrived at, this agreement shall be communicated to Russia, and in case that Power does not oppose it, the action shall be undertaken in accordance with the agreement which has been reached, and in accordance with the sentiments of unity and community of interests. In the contrary case,-if an agreement is not reached,-the two states shall appeal to the opinion of Russia, which opinion shall, so far as Russia shall pronounce the same, be binding upon the two parties.

In case Russia does not give its opinion and an agreement between the two contracting parties cannot, even after that, be reached, and in case the party which is in favor of action decides to pursue such action alone and at its own risk, the other party shall be obliged to observe a friendly neutrality towards its ally, to proceed at once to mobilize its troops within the limits provided by the military convention, and to go to the assistance of its ally with all its power, if a third state takes the part of Turkey.

ARTICLE 2

All territorial additions which may be secured by common action as provided in articles one and two of the treaty and article one of this secret appendix thereto, shall be under the common dominion (condominium) of the allied states. The division thereof shall be made without delay within the maximum period of three months after the reestablishment of peace and upon the following bases:

Servia recognizes the right of Bulgaria to territories to the east of the Rhodopes and the Struma river; Bulgaria recognizes the rights of Servia to those situated to the north and west of Char-Planina.

As regards territories situated between the Char, Rhodopes, the Aegean Sea and Ochrida Lake, if the two parties reach the conclusion that it is impossible because of the common interests of the Bulgarian and Servian nations, or for other reasons of domestic or foreign affairs, to organize these territories as a separate autonomous province, they shall be disposed of according to the following provisions:

Servia agrees not to lay any claim to the territory situated beyond the line traced upon the annexed map, starting from the Turkish- Bulgarian frontier at Mt. Golem (to the north of Kr. Palanka) and following a generally southwesterly direction to Ochrida Lake, passing Mt. Kitka, between the villages of Metejeve and Podarji-kon, by the summit to the east of the village of Nerav, and following the watershed to the peak of 1,000, north of the village of Baschtevo, between the villages of Liubentzi and Petarlitza, by the peak Ostritch 1,000 (Lissetz- Planina), the peak 1,050 between the villages of Dratch and Opila, by the villages of Talichmantzi and Jivalevo, the peak 1,050, the peak 1,000, the village Kichali, the principal line of the Gradichte-Planina watershed to the peak Goritchte, to the peak 1,023, following then the watershed between the villages of Ivankovtzi and Loghintzi, through Vetersko and Sopot on the Vardar. Crossing the Vardar, it follows the ridges toward the peak 2,550 and as far as Mt. Petropole, along the watershed of this mountain between the villages of Krapa and Barbares to the peak 1,200, between the villages of Yakryenovo and Drenovo, to Mt. Tchesma (1,254), along the watershed of the mountains Baba-Planina and Krouchka-Tepessi, between the villages of Salp and Tzerske, to the summit of Protoyska-Planina, to the east of the village of Belitza, through Brejani to the peak 1,200 (Ilinska-Planina), along the line of the watershed passing the peak 1,330 to the peak 1,217 and between the villages of Livoichta and Gorentzi to Lake Ochrida near the monastery of Gabovtzi.

Bulgaria agrees to accept this frontier if His Majesty the Emperor of Russia, who shall be asked to be the final arbitrator of this question, decides in favor of this line.

It is understood that the two contracting parties agree to accept as the final frontier the line which His Majesty the Emperor of Russia, within the above indicated limits, may find to correspond the closest to the rights and interests of the two parties.

ARTICLE 3

A copy of the treaty and of this secret appendix thereto shall be communicated together to the Imperial Government of Russia, which shall be asked at the same time to take note thereof, as a proof of the good intentions of the parties thereto in connection with the purposes sought by them, and with the request that His Majesty the Emperor of Russia deign to accept and approve the powers attributed to himself and his government in the provisions of these two documents.

ARTICLE 4

Every difference which shall arise concerning the interpretation and execution of any of the provisions of the treaty, of this secret appendix, and of the military convention, shall be submitted to Russia for final decision, as soon as one of the two parties shall have declared that it believes it impossible to reach an agreement by direct negotiations.

ARTICLE 5

None of the provisions of this secret appendix shall be published or communicated to another Power without a prior agreement thereon by the two parties hereto and the consent of Russia.

Done at Sofia, February 29, 1912.

Military Convention Between The Kingdoms Of Bulgaria And Servia

Signed June 19, 1912

In accordance with the spirit, and upon the authority, of Article 3 of the treaty of friendship and alliance between the Kingdom of Bulgaria and the Kingdom of Servia, and in order to further insure the successful conduct of war, and the more complete realization of the purposes which the alliance has in view, the two contracting parties agree upon the following provisions, which shall in every respect be of the same force and value as the provisions of the treaty itself.

ARTICLE 1

The Kingdom of Bulgaria and the Kingdom of Servia agree, in the cases provided in Articles 1 and 2 of the treaty of alliance, and in Article 1 of the secret appendix to that treaty, to render one another assistance, both in fighting along the frontier and in taking part in military operations outside the national territory, Bulgaria to furnish an armed force which shall not be less than 200,000 fighting men, and Servia a force of at least 150,000 fighting men.

Combatants belonging to auxiliary organizations, Servian troops of the third reserve, and the territorial troops of Bulgaria shall not be included within the above number.

This body of combatants must be at the frontier or beyond the frontier of its national territory - in the direction which it should take according to the causes and purpose of the war, and according to the development of military operations - at the latest on the twenty-first day after the declaration of war or the communication of the ally stating that the casus faederis exists. However, even before the expiration of this period, the two parties shall consider it their duty as allies - if it is in accord with the nature of the military operations and may contribute to the favorable outcome of the war - to send their troops, even if only a part of them, and so far as the mobilization and concentration will permit, to the field of battle on the seventh day after the declaration of war or of the existence of the casus faederis.

ARTICLE 2

If Roumania shall attack Bulgaria, Servia is bound to declare war immediately against Roumania, and to lead a force of at least 100,000 fighting men against Roumania, either along the Danube or into the field of operations in Dobrudsha.

In case Turkey attacks Bulgaria, Servia agrees to enter Turkey and to send at least 100,000 fighting men from its mobilized troops to the field of operations along the Vardar.

If Servia should be at this time at war with a third Power, either alone or in conjunction with Bulgaria, it shall direct towards Turkey or Roumania all the troops remaining at its free disposal.

ARTICLE 3

If Austria-Hungary attacks Servia, Bulgaria is bound to declare war immediately against Austria-Hungary, and to direct its troops to the number of at least 200,000 fighting men, into Servia so that after uniting with the Servian army they may operate either offensively or defensively against Austria-Hungary.

The same obligation shall rest upon Bulgaria with regard to Servia in case Austria-Hungary, under any pretext whatever, whether in accord with Turkey or not, shall send its troops into the province of Novi- Bazar, and Servia as a consequence thereof declares war, or, for the defense of its interests, sends its troops into the province and by that act provokes an armed conflict with Austria-Hungary.

In case Turkey should attack Servia, Bulgaria agrees to cross the Turkish frontier immediately and to take from its troops which have been mobilized in accordance with article one of the present convention, an army of at least 100,000 fighting men, which shall be led to the theatre of operations of the Vardar.

If Roumania attacks Servia, Bulgaria is bound to attack the Roumanian troops as soon as they shall have crossed the Danube and entered Servian territory.

If Bulgaria, in any of the cases provided for in the present article, is already at war with a third state, either alone or in conjunction with Servia, it is bound to send to the assistance of Servia all the troops which it still has at its free disposal.

ARTICLE 4

If Bulgaria and Servia, in accordance with previous agreement, declare war on Turkey, each is bound, if no other arrangement is made by special agreement, to take from its troops which have been mobilized in accordance with article one of the present convention, an army of at least 100,000 fighting men and lead them into the theatre of operations along the Vardar.

ARTICLE 5

In case one of the contracting parties shall declare war against a third state without previous agreement and without the consent of the other contracting party, the latter shall be bound, during the war, to observe a friendly neutrality towards its ally, as well as to mobilize without delay a force of at least 50,000 men which shall be concentrated in such a manner as to best assure liberty of action on the part of its ally.

ARTICLE 6

In case of a war carried on jointly, neither of the contracting parties shall conclude an armistice with the enemy for a longer period than 24 hours, without previous agreement and without the consent of the other party.

A previous agreement in writing shall also be necessary before entering into negotiations for peace and the signature of a treaty of peace.

ARTICLE 7

During the war, the troops of each of the contracting parties shall be commanded and all their operations shall be directed by their own officers.

When bodies of troops belonging to the armies of the two states shall be carrying on operations for the accomplishment of the same object, the common command shall be undertaken, in the case of bodies of the same grade, by the senior officer in that particular grade, and where the bodies of troops are of different grade, by the senior officer from the point of view of the authority exercised.

When one or several separate armies belonging to one of the contracting parties shall be placed at the disposition of the other party, they shall be under the orders of their own officers who, in the strategic operations, shall be subordinate to the commander-in-chief of the army at whose disposition they are placed.

In case of a joint war against Turkey, the chief command on the field of operations of Vardar shall belong to Servia if the principal Servian army is operating upon this field and if it is numerically stronger than the Bulgarian troops upon this field, in accordance with Article 4 of this convention. However, if the principal Servian army is not operating upon this field and when it is less numerous there than the Bulgarian troops, the chief command on this field shall belong to Bulgaria.

ARTICLE 8

In case the troops of the two contracting parties should be placed under the orders of the same officer, all the orders and all decisions relating to the common strategic and tactical operations shall be drawn up in both languages - Bulgarian and Servian.

ARTICLE 9

With regard to victualling, and subsistence in general, lodging, medical service, transportation of wounded and sick, or the burial of the dead, the transportation of material of war and other similar objects, the army of each of the contracting parties shall enjoy the same rights and facilities upon the territory of the other party and in the same manner, as the troops of the latter party, in accordance with local laws and regulations. All the local authorities shall lend their assistance to the allied troops with a view to this end.

The payment for all means of subsistence shall be paid for by each party on its own account at the local prices, preferably in cash, and in exceptional cases by vouchers specially delivered.

The transportation of troops and all war material, means of subsistence and other objects, by railroad, and the charges therefor, shall be at the expense of the party over whose territory the transportation takes place.

ARTICLE 10

Trophies belong to the army which takes them.

In case the seizure is made as a result of a battle fought in common upon the same field, the two armies shall divide the trophies in proportion to the number of the combatants who have directly participated in the battle.

ARTICLE 11

During the war, each contracting party shall have a representative on the general staff of the commander-in-chief or in the official staffs of the armies, and these delegates shall preserve communication between the two armies in all matters.

ARTICLE 12

Strategic operations and cases not provided for, as well as disputes which may arise, shall be decided by common agreement by the two commanders-in-chief.

ARTICLE 13

Immediately after the conclusion of the present convention the chiefs of the general staffs of the allied armies shall come to an understanding regarding the distribution of troops mobilized in accordance with article one of the present convention and their arrangement within the zone of concentration in the cases above set forth, as well as regarding the roads which shall be repaired or reconstructed to facilitate rapid concentration upon the frontier, and other operations.

ARTICLE 14

The present convention shall become effective on the date of its signature and shall continue in force so long as the treaty of friendship and alliance, to which it is annexed as an integral part, remains in force.

Agreement Between The General Staffs Of Bulgaria And Servia

Signed June 19, 1912

In accordance with Article 13 of the military convention existing between the Kingdom of Bulgaria and the Kingdom of Servia, the delegates designated by the two parties have agreed upon the following which is based upon the respective plans of operation:

In case of war between Bulgaria and Servia on the one hand and Turkey on the other:

In case the principal Turkish army should be concentrated in the region of Uskup, Komanova, Karatova, Kotchani, Veles, the allied troops intended to operate in the region of the Vardar shall be divided as follows:

1. A Servian army in two divisions shall march upon Uskup by way of Kara-Dagh. This army shall form the right wing of the allied troops.

2. A Servian army of five divisions of infantry and a division of cavalry shall advance through the valley of the Moravitza and the Ptchinia, upon the Komanova-Karatova side. This army shall form the center of the allied troops and shall have the duty of carrying on operations in front of the enemy.

3. A Bulgarian army of three divisions shall form the left wing of the allied troops, with the duty of operating against the right wing and on the rear of the enemy, in the direction of Kostendil-Egri-Palanka- Uskup and Kostendil-Tzarevo-Selo-Kotchani.

4. The two heads of the general staffs shall reconnoitre together the region between Kostendil and Vrania, and if this reconnoissance demonstrates the possibility of employing large forces in the direction of Kostendil-Egri-Palanka-Uskup the two Servian divisions intended to operate by way of Kara-Dagh against Uskup, shall, if the general situation permits, be employed to reinforce the left wing of the allied troops and shall be concentrated for this purpose near Kostendil.

5. To cover the right flank of the allied troops, the chief of the general staff of the Servian army shall place at its disposition the three remaining divisions of troops of the second reserve.

6. The chief of the field staff of the Bulgarian army agrees to attend to the prompt restoration of the road from Bossilegrad to Vlassina.

7. If the situation requires the reinforcement of Bulgarian troops upon the field of operations along the Maritza, and if, in the region of the Vardar, all the troops above enumerated are not absolutely indispensable, the necessary troops shall be transported from the latter field of operations to that of the Maritza. And inversely, if the situation requires the reinforcement of the allied troops on the field of operation of Vardar and if the retention of all the troops designated for the operations upon the field of Maritza is not indispensable, the necessary troops shall be transported from this field to that of Vardar.

Appendix

The two general staffs agree:

a. To exchange all their information regarding the armies of surrounding states;

b. To procure for one another the desired number of copies of all the rules, instructions, maps, etc., both official as well as secret;

c. To send to the other allied army a certain number of officers whose duty it shall be to become familiar with its organization and to study its language, in accordance with Article 2 of the military convention;

d. The chiefs of the general staffs of the Servian and Bulgarian armies shall meet each autumn in order to become familiar with the general situation and to modify the agreements made as may be necessary under the circumstances.

Varna, June 19, 1912.

GENERAL R. POUTNIK,

GENERAL FITCHEFF.

[1] This treaty, the secret appendix, military convention, and argument between the general staffs, following, translated from Questions Diplomatiques et Coloniales, Dec. 1, 1913, by W. Clayton Carpenter, Washington, D. C.

Source: Amercian Journal of International Law: Vol. 8, No. 1, Supplement: Official Documents. (Jan., 1914).

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