Treaty Of Friendship And Alliance Between The Kingdom Of Bulgaria And
The Kingdom Of Servia 
Signed at Sofia, February 29, 1912
His Majesty, Ferdinand the First, King of the Bulgars, and His Majesty
Peter the First, King of Servia, thoroughly convinced of the common
interests and the common destiny of their countries, and of the brother
nations of Bulgarian and Servian peoples, and being resolved firmly
to defend these interests with their united forces, and to endeavor
to pursue them to a happy conclusion, have agreed upon the following:
The Kingdom of Bulgaria and the Kingdom of Servia mutually and reciprocally
guarantee the political independence and territorial integrity of each
other, agreeing absolutely without exception of any kind, to support
one another with their entire strength in any case where one of the
two kingdoms may be attacked by one or more states.
The two contracting parties agree also to aid one another with their
entire strength in case any one of the great Powers shall attempt to
annex or occupy, or to take military possession of, even temporarily,
any part whatever of the territory of the Balkan peninsula now under
Turkish domination, if one of the contracting parties believes this
action to be injurious to its vital interests, and a casus belli.
The two contracting parties agree not to conclude peace except jointly
and after prior agreement.
A military convention shall be concluded for the purpose of insuring
the complete execution of the present treaty in the manner best suited
to the accomplishment of the desired purpose. This convention shall
provide also everything that is to be done by each party in case of
war, as well as everything regarding military organization, demobilization
and mobilization of troops, superiority of orders, which should be determined
in time of peace with regard to the preparation for, and proper conduct
The military convention shall form an integral part of the present
treaty. The work of drafting the same shall begin at the latest two
weeks after the signature of the present treaty and must be concluded
within the two months following.
The present treaty and the military convention shall be in force from
the date of their signature to the thirty-first of December, 1920, inclusive.
They cannot be prolonged beyond this period without a supplementary
agreement of the contracting parties, expressly authorized. However,
in case the two parties should find themselves at war at the expiration
of the treaty and the military convention, or in case they shall not
have yet recovered from the situation resulting from the war, the treaty
and convention shall be continued in force until the signing of the
treaty of peace or the settlement of the conditions brought about by
The present treaty shall be drawn up in two identic copies, in both
the Servian and Bulgarian languages. It shall be signed by the sovereigns
and ministers of foreign affairs of the two countries. The military
convention, also in two copies and drawn up in the Bulgarian and Servian
languages, shall be signed by the sovereigns, the ministers of foreign
affairs, and the special military plenipotentiaries.
The present treaty and the military convention shall not be published
or communicated to other countries except by previous agreement of the
two contracting parties, and then it, shall be done jointly and at the
Previous agreement shall also be necessary for the admission of a third
state into the alliance.
Done at Sofia, February 29, 1912.
Secret Appendix To The Treaty Of Friendship
And Alliance Between The Kingdom Of Bulgaria And The Kingdom Of Servia
Signed at Sofia, February 29, I912
In case internal disorders arise in Turkey, of such a character as
to endanger the national or state interests of the contracting parties,
or of one of them, as for instance in case Turkey should find itself
beset by internal or external difficulties which might involve the maintenance
of the status quo in the Balkan peninsula, the first of the contracting
parties to arrive at the conviction that military action should be taken
on this account, shall make a statement, giving the reasons therefor,
to the other party which shall be bound to enter immediately upon an
exchange of views, and if the latter party does not agree with its ally,
shall give to the ally an answer stating the reasons.
If an agreement is arrived at, this agreement shall be communicated
to Russia, and in case that Power does not oppose it, the action shall
be undertaken in accordance with the agreement which has been reached,
and in accordance with the sentiments of unity and community of interests.
In the contrary case,-if an agreement is not reached,-the two states
shall appeal to the opinion of Russia, which opinion shall, so far as
Russia shall pronounce the same, be binding upon the two parties.
In case Russia does not give its opinion and an agreement between the
two contracting parties cannot, even after that, be reached, and in
case the party which is in favor of action decides to pursue such action
alone and at its own risk, the other party shall be obliged to observe
a friendly neutrality towards its ally, to proceed at once to mobilize
its troops within the limits provided by the military convention, and
to go to the assistance of its ally with all its power, if a third state
takes the part of Turkey.
All territorial additions which may be secured by common action as
provided in articles one and two of the treaty and article one of this
secret appendix thereto, shall be under the common dominion (condominium)
of the allied states. The division thereof shall be made without delay
within the maximum period of three months after the reestablishment
of peace and upon the following bases:
Servia recognizes the right of Bulgaria to territories to the east
of the Rhodopes and the Struma river; Bulgaria recognizes the rights
of Servia to those situated to the north and west of Char-Planina.
As regards territories situated between the Char, Rhodopes, the Aegean
Sea and Ochrida Lake, if the two parties reach the conclusion that it
is impossible because of the common interests of the Bulgarian and Servian
nations, or for other reasons of domestic or foreign affairs, to organize
these territories as a separate autonomous province, they shall be disposed
of according to the following provisions:
Servia agrees not to lay any claim to the territory situated beyond
the line traced upon the annexed map, starting from the Turkish- Bulgarian
frontier at Mt. Golem (to the north of Kr. Palanka) and following a
generally southwesterly direction to Ochrida Lake, passing Mt. Kitka,
between the villages of Metejeve and Podarji-kon, by the summit to the
east of the village of Nerav, and following the watershed to the peak
of 1,000, north of the village of Baschtevo, between the villages of
Liubentzi and Petarlitza, by the peak Ostritch 1,000 (Lissetz- Planina),
the peak 1,050 between the villages of Dratch and Opila, by the villages
of Talichmantzi and Jivalevo, the peak 1,050, the peak 1,000, the village
Kichali, the principal line of the Gradichte-Planina watershed to the
peak Goritchte, to the peak 1,023, following then the watershed between
the villages of Ivankovtzi and Loghintzi, through Vetersko and Sopot
on the Vardar. Crossing the Vardar, it follows the ridges toward the
peak 2,550 and as far as Mt. Petropole, along the watershed of this
mountain between the villages of Krapa and Barbares to the peak 1,200,
between the villages of Yakryenovo and Drenovo, to Mt. Tchesma (1,254),
along the watershed of the mountains Baba-Planina and Krouchka-Tepessi,
between the villages of Salp and Tzerske, to the summit of Protoyska-Planina,
to the east of the village of Belitza, through Brejani to the peak 1,200
(Ilinska-Planina), along the line of the watershed passing the peak
1,330 to the peak 1,217 and between the villages of Livoichta and Gorentzi
to Lake Ochrida near the monastery of Gabovtzi.
Bulgaria agrees to accept this frontier if His Majesty the Emperor
of Russia, who shall be asked to be the final arbitrator of this question,
decides in favor of this line.
It is understood that the two contracting parties agree to accept as
the final frontier the line which His Majesty the Emperor of Russia,
within the above indicated limits, may find to correspond the closest
to the rights and interests of the two parties.
A copy of the treaty and of this secret appendix thereto shall be communicated
together to the Imperial Government of Russia, which shall be asked
at the same time to take note thereof, as a proof of the good intentions
of the parties thereto in connection with the purposes sought by them,
and with the request that His Majesty the Emperor of Russia deign to
accept and approve the powers attributed to himself and his government
in the provisions of these two documents.
Every difference which shall arise concerning the interpretation and
execution of any of the provisions of the treaty, of this secret appendix,
and of the military convention, shall be submitted to Russia for final
decision, as soon as one of the two parties shall have declared that
it believes it impossible to reach an agreement by direct negotiations.
None of the provisions of this secret appendix shall be published or
communicated to another Power without a prior agreement thereon by the
two parties hereto and the consent of Russia.
Done at Sofia, February 29, 1912.
Military Convention Between The Kingdoms
Of Bulgaria And Servia
Signed June 19, 1912
In accordance with the spirit, and upon the authority, of Article 3
of the treaty of friendship and alliance between the Kingdom of Bulgaria
and the Kingdom of Servia, and in order to further insure the successful
conduct of war, and the more complete realization of the purposes which
the alliance has in view, the two contracting parties agree upon the
following provisions, which shall in every respect be of the same force
and value as the provisions of the treaty itself.
The Kingdom of Bulgaria and the Kingdom of Servia agree, in the cases
provided in Articles 1 and 2 of the treaty of alliance, and in Article
1 of the secret appendix to that treaty, to render one another assistance,
both in fighting along the frontier and in taking part in military operations
outside the national territory, Bulgaria to furnish an armed force which
shall not be less than 200,000 fighting men, and Servia a force of at
least 150,000 fighting men.
Combatants belonging to auxiliary organizations, Servian troops of
the third reserve, and the territorial troops of Bulgaria shall not
be included within the above number.
This body of combatants must be at the frontier or beyond the frontier
of its national territory - in the direction which it should take according
to the causes and purpose of the war, and according to the development
of military operations - at the latest on the twenty-first day after
the declaration of war or the communication of the ally stating that
the casus faederis exists. However, even before the expiration
of this period, the two parties shall consider it their duty as allies
- if it is in accord with the nature of the military operations and
may contribute to the favorable outcome of the war - to send their troops,
even if only a part of them, and so far as the mobilization and concentration
will permit, to the field of battle on the seventh day after the declaration
of war or of the existence of the casus faederis.
If Roumania shall attack Bulgaria, Servia is bound to declare war immediately
against Roumania, and to lead a force of at least 100,000 fighting men
against Roumania, either along the Danube or into the field of operations
In case Turkey attacks Bulgaria, Servia agrees to enter Turkey and
to send at least 100,000 fighting men from its mobilized troops to the
field of operations along the Vardar.
If Servia should be at this time at war with a third Power, either
alone or in conjunction with Bulgaria, it shall direct towards Turkey
or Roumania all the troops remaining at its free disposal.
If Austria-Hungary attacks Servia, Bulgaria is bound to declare war
immediately against Austria-Hungary, and to direct its troops to the
number of at least 200,000 fighting men, into Servia so that after uniting
with the Servian army they may operate either offensively or defensively
The same obligation shall rest upon Bulgaria with regard to Servia
in case Austria-Hungary, under any pretext whatever, whether in accord
with Turkey or not, shall send its troops into the province of Novi-
Bazar, and Servia as a consequence thereof declares war, or, for the
defense of its interests, sends its troops into the province and by
that act provokes an armed conflict with Austria-Hungary.
In case Turkey should attack Servia, Bulgaria agrees to cross the Turkish
frontier immediately and to take from its troops which have been mobilized
in accordance with article one of the present convention, an army of
at least 100,000 fighting men, which shall be led to the theatre of
operations of the Vardar.
If Roumania attacks Servia, Bulgaria is bound to attack the Roumanian
troops as soon as they shall have crossed the Danube and entered Servian
If Bulgaria, in any of the cases provided for in the present article,
is already at war with a third state, either alone or in conjunction
with Servia, it is bound to send to the assistance of Servia all the
troops which it still has at its free disposal.
If Bulgaria and Servia, in accordance with previous agreement, declare
war on Turkey, each is bound, if no other arrangement is made by special
agreement, to take from its troops which have been mobilized in accordance
with article one of the present convention, an army of at least 100,000
fighting men and lead them into the theatre of operations along the
In case one of the contracting parties shall declare war against a
third state without previous agreement and without the consent of the
other contracting party, the latter shall be bound, during the war,
to observe a friendly neutrality towards its ally, as well as to mobilize
without delay a force of at least 50,000 men which shall be concentrated
in such a manner as to best assure liberty of action on the part of
In case of a war carried on jointly, neither of the contracting parties
shall conclude an armistice with the enemy for a longer period than
24 hours, without previous agreement and without the consent of the
A previous agreement in writing shall also be necessary before entering
into negotiations for peace and the signature of a treaty of peace.
During the war, the troops of each of the contracting parties shall
be commanded and all their operations shall be directed by their own
When bodies of troops belonging to the armies of the two states shall
be carrying on operations for the accomplishment of the same object,
the common command shall be undertaken, in the case of bodies of the
same grade, by the senior officer in that particular grade, and where
the bodies of troops are of different grade, by the senior officer from
the point of view of the authority exercised.
When one or several separate armies belonging to one of the contracting
parties shall be placed at the disposition of the other party, they
shall be under the orders of their own officers who, in the strategic
operations, shall be subordinate to the commander-in-chief of the army
at whose disposition they are placed.
In case of a joint war against Turkey, the chief command on the field
of operations of Vardar shall belong to Servia if the principal Servian
army is operating upon this field and if it is numerically stronger
than the Bulgarian troops upon this field, in accordance with Article
4 of this convention. However, if the principal Servian army is not
operating upon this field and when it is less numerous there than the
Bulgarian troops, the chief command on this field shall belong to Bulgaria.
In case the troops of the two contracting parties should be placed
under the orders of the same officer, all the orders and all decisions
relating to the common strategic and tactical operations shall be drawn
up in both languages - Bulgarian and Servian.
With regard to victualling, and subsistence in general, lodging, medical
service, transportation of wounded and sick, or the burial of the dead,
the transportation of material of war and other similar objects, the
army of each of the contracting parties shall enjoy the same rights
and facilities upon the territory of the other party and in the same
manner, as the troops of the latter party, in accordance with local
laws and regulations. All the local authorities shall lend their assistance
to the allied troops with a view to this end.
The payment for all means of subsistence shall be paid for by each
party on its own account at the local prices, preferably in cash, and
in exceptional cases by vouchers specially delivered.
The transportation of troops and all war material, means of subsistence
and other objects, by railroad, and the charges therefor, shall be at
the expense of the party over whose territory the transportation takes
Trophies belong to the army which takes them.
In case the seizure is made as a result of a battle fought in common
upon the same field, the two armies shall divide the trophies in proportion
to the number of the combatants who have directly participated in the
During the war, each contracting party shall have a representative
on the general staff of the commander-in-chief or in the official staffs
of the armies, and these delegates shall preserve communication between
the two armies in all matters.
Strategic operations and cases not provided for, as well as disputes
which may arise, shall be decided by common agreement by the two commanders-in-chief.
Immediately after the conclusion of the present convention the chiefs
of the general staffs of the allied armies shall come to an understanding
regarding the distribution of troops mobilized in accordance with article
one of the present convention and their arrangement within the zone
of concentration in the cases above set forth, as well as regarding
the roads which shall be repaired or reconstructed to facilitate rapid
concentration upon the frontier, and other operations.
The present convention shall become effective on the date of its signature
and shall continue in force so long as the treaty of friendship and
alliance, to which it is annexed as an integral part, remains in force.
Agreement Between The General Staffs Of Bulgaria
Signed June 19, 1912
In accordance with Article 13 of the military convention existing between
the Kingdom of Bulgaria and the Kingdom of Servia, the delegates designated
by the two parties have agreed upon the following which is based upon
the respective plans of operation:
In case of war between Bulgaria and Servia on the one hand and Turkey
on the other:
In case the principal Turkish army should be concentrated in the region
of Uskup, Komanova, Karatova, Kotchani, Veles, the allied troops intended
to operate in the region of the Vardar shall be divided as follows:
1. A Servian army in two divisions shall march upon Uskup by way of
Kara-Dagh. This army shall form the right wing of the allied troops.
2. A Servian army of five divisions of infantry and a division of cavalry
shall advance through the valley of the Moravitza and the Ptchinia,
upon the Komanova-Karatova side. This army shall form the center of
the allied troops and shall have the duty of carrying on operations
in front of the enemy.
3. A Bulgarian army of three divisions shall form the left wing of
the allied troops, with the duty of operating against the right wing
and on the rear of the enemy, in the direction of Kostendil-Egri-Palanka-
Uskup and Kostendil-Tzarevo-Selo-Kotchani.
4. The two heads of the general staffs shall reconnoitre together the
region between Kostendil and Vrania, and if this reconnoissance demonstrates
the possibility of employing large forces in the direction of Kostendil-Egri-Palanka-Uskup
the two Servian divisions intended to operate by way of Kara-Dagh against
Uskup, shall, if the general situation permits, be employed to reinforce
the left wing of the allied troops and shall be concentrated for this
purpose near Kostendil.
5. To cover the right flank of the allied troops, the chief of the
general staff of the Servian army shall place at its disposition the
three remaining divisions of troops of the second reserve.
6. The chief of the field staff of the Bulgarian army agrees to attend
to the prompt restoration of the road from Bossilegrad to Vlassina.
7. If the situation requires the reinforcement of Bulgarian troops
upon the field of operations along the Maritza, and if, in the region
of the Vardar, all the troops above enumerated are not absolutely indispensable,
the necessary troops shall be transported from the latter field of operations
to that of the Maritza. And inversely, if the situation requires the
reinforcement of the allied troops on the field of operation of Vardar
and if the retention of all the troops designated for the operations
upon the field of Maritza is not indispensable, the necessary troops
shall be transported from this field to that of Vardar.
The two general staffs agree:
a. To exchange all their information regarding the armies of surrounding
b. To procure for one another the desired number of copies of all the
rules, instructions, maps, etc., both official as well as secret;
c. To send to the other allied army a certain number of officers whose
duty it shall be to become familiar with its organization and to study
its language, in accordance with Article 2 of the military convention;
d. The chiefs of the general staffs of the Servian and Bulgarian armies
shall meet each autumn in order to become familiar with the general
situation and to modify the agreements made as may be necessary under
Varna, June 19, 1912.
GENERAL R. POUTNIK,
 This treaty, the secret appendix,
military convention, and argument between the general staffs, following,
translated from Questions Diplomatiques et Coloniales, Dec. 1, 1913,
by W. Clayton Carpenter, Washington, D. C.
Source: Amercian Journal of International Law: Vol. 8, No. 1, Supplement:
Official Documents. (Jan., 1914).
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